Friday, October 12, 2018

Genetic regulation of metabolomic biomarkers: Paths to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases



The research has revealed eleven new genetic regions associated with the blood levels of the metabolites, including new loci affecting well-established risk markers for cardiovascular disease and potential biomarkers for type 2 diabetes.
In a study to the genetic variance of human metabolism, specialists have identified thirty one regions of the genome that were related with levels of circulating metabolites, i.e., small molecules that take part in different chemical reactions of human body. Many of the studied metabolites are biomarkers for cardiovascular disease or related disorders, accordingly the loci uncovered may provide valuable insight into the biological processes leading to common diseases.
Lab tests used in the clinic typically monitor one or few circulating metabolites. The researchers used a high throughput method called nuclear magnetic resonance that can measure more than hundred different metabolites in one assay. This provides a considerably more in-depth picture of circulating metabolic compounds.
The group assayed 117 detailed metabolic markers, including amino acids, lipids and lipoprotein subclasses, and conducted the largest genome-wide association analysis of this type, in terms of study sample size of 8330 individuals and 7.7 million genomic markers studied. They revealed, in total, 31 genetic regions related with the blood levels of the metabolites.
Among the discoveries were two new loci influencing serum cholesterol subclass measures, well-established risk markers for cardiovascular disease, and five new loci affecting levels of amino acids recently discovered to be potential biomarkers for type 2 diabetes. The found variants have significant effects on the metabolite levels, the effect sizes being in general considerably larger than the known common variants for complex disease have.
Additionally, using twin pair samples, the scientists indicated that the metabolite levels show a high degree of heritability. This result suggests that the studied metabolites are describing better the underlying biology than the routinely used lab tests. In this way, the examination provides further support for the use of detailed data on multitude of metabolites in genetic studies to provide novel biological insights and to help in elucidating the processes leading to common diseases.

Contact details:
Tiffany Hales
Program Manager | Diabetic 2018
Mail id: diabetes@mehealthevents.org

Friday, October 5, 2018

Evening preference, lack of sleep associated with higher BMI in people with prediabetes



Individuals with prediabetes, who go to bed later, eat meals later and are more active and alert later in the day. The individuals who have an evening preference have higher body mass indices compared with people with prediabetes who do things earlier in the day, or exhibit morning preference. According to study, the higher BMI among people with evening preference is related to their lack of sufficient sleep.
Prediabetes is where glucose levels are higher than typical however not yet high enough to be Type 2 diabetes. Without modifications to exercise and diet, patients with prediabetes have a very high risk of developing Type 2 diabetes.
Lack of sufficient sleep has been previously connected to an increased risk for various health conditions, including obesity and diabetes. Evening preference has likewise been connected to higher weight and higher risk for diabetes.
Diabetes is such a widespread disease with such an impact on quality of life, that identifying new lifestyle factors that might play into its development can help us advice patients with a beginning stage of the disease on things they can do to turn it around and prevent prediabetes from becoming full-blown diabetes.
Participants who scored high in morningness answered questions showing that they preferred to wake up earlier, have exercises prior, and felt more alert earlier in the day compared with individuals who scored high on eveningness. Sleep duration and timing were obtained using a questionnaire and the extent of social jet lag was assessed for each participant. Social jet lag reflects a shift in sleep timing among weekdays and weekends. Greater social jetlag has previously been shown to be associated with higher BMI in some populations. Average sleep duration was around seven hours per night.   
The scientists found that for participants younger than 60 years of age, more elevated levels of social jet lag were related with a higher BMI. Among participants older than 60 years old, those with more evening preference had higher BMIs and this impact was partly due to having insufficient sleep but not social jet lag. Evening preference was directly connected with higher BMI in this group. 
Timing and duration of sleep are potentially modifiable. Individuals can have more regular bedtimes and aim to have more sleep, which may help decrease body mass index and the potential development of diabetes in this high-risk group.

Contact details:
Tiffany Hales
Program Manager | Diabetic 2018
Mail id: diabetes@mehealthevents.org

Saturday, September 29, 2018

New aid to help identify and manage patients with diabetes at increased risk of fracture



Fragility fractures are a serious yet neglected complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with enhanced risk of fragility fractures in individuals with diabetes reaching out across the life span.
This is a concern as, globally, the prevalence of diabetes in adults is expected to increase from very nearly 425 million today, to around 629 million by 2045. In the meantime, many clinicians who treat patients with diabetes are not aware of their patients' heightened risk of disabling and potentially life-threatening fractures.
Specialist stated the link between diabetes and skeletal health is complex and the optimal approach to the management of bone health in patients with diabetes is not yet definitive and may change after some time as discoveries of new clinical studies become available. This new review will inform clinicians about the present state of knowledge, and, importantly, the clear algorithm will facilitate the clinical assessment and management of fragility fracture risk in their patients according to current best practice. 
The review outlines the clinical characteristics of bone fragility in adults with diabetes, and highlights recent studies that have evaluated bone mineral density, bone microstructure and biochemical markers, material properties, and fracture prediction (FRAX). It also looks at the effect of diabetes drugs on bone, and additionally the efficacy of osteoporosis treatments in these patients.
Key messages incorporate:
  • FRAX and BMD T-score predict fracture risk in those with type 2 diabetes; however both require modification for diabetes to avoid underestimation of risk.
  • The pathophysiology of bone delicacy in diabetes is likely multifactorial.
  • If a patient has sign for treatment in view of criteria produced for non-diabetes patients, these patients should be treated with osteoporosis drugs. Without built up osteoporosis, these pharmaceuticals might be utilized, despite the fact that with caution as the impacts of these medications in situations where bone fragility is mostly because of alterations in bone quality remain to be thoroughly evaluated.
  • Future studies should continue to evaluate the structural determinants (material properties, microstructure etc.) of bone fragility and refine fracture prediction algorithms by including disease-specific determinants of fracture.
  • New trials will have to prospectively investigate the efficacy and safety of osteoporosis treatment in diabetics with and without low a bone mineral density.

Contact details:
Tiffany Hales
Program Manager | Diabetic 2018
Email id: diabetes@mehealthevents.org

Friday, September 21, 2018

New biomarkers of inflammation identified as risk of polyneuropathy



Polyneuropathy is one of the most common complications in individuals with diabetes. However, it can likewise happen with certain risk factors or diseases before the beginning of diabetes. First symptoms are frequently pins-and-needles sensations in the feet. Although polyneuropathy is present in about 30% of people with diabetes, it frequently remains undiagnosed. Researchers have now been able to show for the first time that six biomarkers of inflammation show the risk of polyneuropathy.   
Although many patients suffer from polyneuropathy, relatively little is currently known about its development, which additionally limits the therapeutic options. It is known that inflammatory processes add to other diabetic complications such as stroke or heart attack. The aim of this new examination was therefore the extensive analysis of biomarkers that describe inflammatory processes as a risk factor for distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSPN).  The two individuals with type 2 diabetes and people in the elderly general population were analysed.
In their study, they identified novel biomarkers that show the risk of polyneuropathy. For the first time, researchers were also able to find indications that in addition to the innate immune system, the adaptive immune system could be involved in the development of the disease. These findings could open new therapeutic perspectives. The aim could be to impact the immune system accordingly and thus ultimately prevent the development or progression of neuropathy.
Study -- Procedure and Design
The examination included 513 men and women of the population-based KORA F4/FF4 cohort aged 62 to 81 years who had no distal sensory polyneuropathy at the beginning of the study. Of these people, 127 developed a distal sensory polyneuropathy during the 6.5 year follow-up period. The serum level of 26 of these 71 biomarkers was higher in individuals who developed polyneuropathy during the study than in people without polyneuropathy. After statistical correction for multiple testing, higher concentrations of six biomarkers remained related with the distal sensory polyneuropathy risk.   
The chemokines indicates neurotoxic effects in a cell culture model, which showed their involvement in the development of neuropathy. When the data for these six biomarkers were added to a clinical risk model, the predictive quality of the model enhanced significantly. Further pathway examinations showed that different cell types of innate and adaptive immunity are likely to be involved in the development of DSPN. Overall, this examination has therefore been able to reveal novel relationship between biomarkers of inflammation and the risk of polyneuropathy and to give evidence suggesting a complex interaction of adaptive and innate immunity in the development of this complication.  
Conclusion
This examination significantly improves understanding of the role of inflammatory processes in the improvement of DSPN in the elderly both with and without type 2 diabetes. The primary findings must now be replicated in other cohorts. In addition to biochemical examinations, examinations of immune cells are also important. The long-term aim of this work is to clarify whether and how modulation of inflammatory processes can supplement the options for prevention and therapy of DSPN.

Contact details:
Tiffany Hales
Program Manager | Diabetic 2018
Email id: diabetes@mehealthevents.org

Friday, September 14, 2018

Crash diets can cause a transient deterioration in heart function



Crash diets, also called meal replacement programmes, have turned out to be progressively elegant in a previous couple of years. These eating methodologies have a low-calorie substance of 600 to 800 kcal every day and can be compelling for getting more fit, decreasing circulatory strain, and turning around diabetes. Yet, the impacts on the heart have not been considered as of not long ago. This examination utilized attractive reverberation imaging (MRI) to research the effect of a low calorie consume fewer calories on heart work and the appropriation of fat in the stomach area, liver, and heart muscle. The investigation included 21 stout volunteers. The normal age was 52 years, normal weight list (BMI) was 37 kg/m2, and six were men. Members devoured a low-calorie eating regimen of 600 to 800 kcal every day for two months. X-ray was performed at the beginning of the investigation and following one and two months. Following one week, add up to muscle versus fat, instinctive fat and liver fat had all essentially fallen by a normal of 6%, 11%, and 42%, separately. This was joined by critical upgrades in insulin protection, fasting all out cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and pulse. Nonetheless, following one week, heart fat substance had ascended by 44%. This was related with a weakening in heart work, 3 including the heart's capacity to pump blood. By two months, heart fat substance and capacity had enhanced past what they had been before the eating routine started and every single other estimation including muscle to fat ratio and cholesterol were proceeding to make strides. The metabolic upgrades with a low-calorie count calorie, for example, a lessening in liver fat and inversion of diabetes, would be required to enhance heart work. Rather, heart work deteriorated in the main week before beginning to make strides. The sudden drop in calories makes fat be discharged from various parts of the body into the blood and be taken up by the heart muscle. The heart muscle likes to pick between fat and sugar as fuel and being overwhelmed by fat declines its capacity. After the intense period in which the body is acclimating to emotional calorie limitation, the fat substance and capacity of the heart progressed.
Contact details:
Tiffany Hales 
Program Manager | Diabetic 2018
Mail id: diabetes@mehealthevents.org

Friday, September 7, 2018

Brain activity helps explain diabetics negative feelings, risk for depression



Study suggests those negative feelings may originate from problems regulating blood sugar levels that impact emotional response in the brain. The examination found people with Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes will probably focus on and have a strong emotional response to threats and negative things, which influences quality of life and increases risk for depression.  
Specialist says gauging the startle response allowed researchers to measure central nervous system activity using tiny electrodes placed below the eye. Study participants viewed a progression of negative, positive and neutral images intended to evoke an emotional response. The electrodes captured the rate of flinch or startle, a contraction we cannot control, associated with each image, researchers said.
Individuals with more elevated amounts of insulin resistance were more startled by negative pictures. By expansion, they might be more reactive to negative things in life. It is one piece of evidence to suggest that these metabolic problems are related to issues with how we perceive and deal with things that stress all of us out.
The specialists say the evidence is even more compelling when combined with the results of EEG tests recording activity when the brain is at rest. Study participants with prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes had greater activity on the right side of the brain, which is associated with depression and negative emotions. If someone is predisposed to focusing on negative things, it may become a barrier for getting thinner and switching medical problems.
Individuals with prediabetes and diabetes also recorded lower cortisol levels, a potential indicator of chronic stress and cognitive test scores, providing giving extra help to the discoveries.
For people with blood sugar problems, being more stressed and responsive can cause blood sugar to spike. If people with diabetes and prediabetes are trying to treat or reverse the disease, stressful events may hinder their goals. Frequent negative reactions to stressful events can prompt to a lower quality of life and create a vicious cycle that makes it hard to be healthy.
Contact details:
Tiffany Hales
Program Manager | Diabetic 2018
Mail id: diabetes@mehealthevents.org

Friday, August 31, 2018

Insulin resistance under-diagnosed in non-diabetics with Parkinson's disease



Very nearly 66% of non-diabetic patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) might be insulin resistant, in spite of having normal blood sugar. Researcher’s findings suggest that insulin resistance in PD is a common and largely undetected problem, especially in patients who are overweight.
Decreased glucose tolerance has long been recognized as a potential risk factor for Parkinson's disease, and there is expanding examination of insulin resistance as a pathologic driver of neurodegeneration. The key link between the two conditions appears to be insulin resistance, a potentially reversible condition that not only predisposes individuals to type 2 diabetes (DM2) but is also related with neurodegeneration. However, the prevalence of insulin resistance in Parkinson's disease is unknown.

Investigators tested 154 non-diabetic Parkinson's disease patients for fasting glucose and insulin to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance and to connect insulin resistance with other metabolic indicators, motor and non-motor symptoms of PD, and quality of life. Based a broadly used formula, known as the HOMA index, they determined how many of these patients had a reduced response to their own insulin. Among different estimations, their weight and height were recorded and their movement and cognitive performance were estimated.
Results demonstrated that almost 66% of patients had undiagnosed insulin resistance, despite normal fasting glucose and, in many cases, normal haemoglobin A1c, a test that is frequently performed for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Their information confirmed past examinations that insulin resistance is more than double in obese compared with lean individuals, but the investigators also found a substantially higher percentage (41%) of lean Parkinson's disease patients with insulin resistance. They found no correlation between insulin resistance and cognitive decline.
The potential effect of this investigation is two-fold. Weight gain and obesity is a major public health challenge and insulin resistance appears linked to body weight. These findings could prompt to increase screening of PD patients to recognize and correct this condition.
The second and more particular impact is that identifying patients with insulin resistance could allow for personalized medicine, whereby Parkinson’s disease patients with insulin resistance may be treated with medications targeted to reverse the condition. Study on the use of diabetic medications for PD, such as GLP-1 agonists like exenatide and liraglutide, is ongoing.
Now that, for the first time, we understand how common insulin resistance is in non-diabetic patients with Parkinson’s disease, we can start to address this public health challenge. This increases the importance of finding new medications and way of life mediations that can address this metabolic dysfunction with multiple implications, from diabetes to neurodegenerative disorders like PD and Alzheimer's disease.


Contact details
Tiffany Hales
Program Manager | Diabetic 2018
Email id: diabetes@mehealthevents.org

Genetic regulation of metabolomic biomarkers: Paths to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases

The research has revealed eleven new genetic regions associated with the blood levels of the metabolites, including new loci affectin...